2022
Ref: SCART-2022-0046

SolO/EUI Observations of Ubiquitous Fine-scale Bright Dots in an Emerging Flux Region: Comparison with a Bifrost MHD Simulation

accepted to be published in ApJ (2022)

Abstract: We report on the presence of numerous tiny bright dots in and around an emerging flux region (an X-ray/coronal bright point) observed with SolO's EUI/\hri\ in 174 \AA. These dots are roundish, have a diameter of 675$\pm$300 km, a lifetime of 50$\pm$35 seconds, and an intensity enhancement of 30\% $\pm$10\% above their immediate surroundings. About half of the dots remain isolated during their evolution and move randomly and slowly ($<$10 \kms). The other half show extensions, appearing as a small loop or surge/jet, with intensity propagations below 30\,\kms. Many of the bigger and brighter \hri\ dots are discernible in SDO/AIA 171 \AA\ channel, have significant emissivity in the temperature range of 1--2 MK, and are often located at polarity inversion lines observed in HMI LOS magnetograms. Although not as pervasive as in observations, Bifrost MHD simulation of an emerging flux region do show dots in synthetic \fe\ images. These dots in simulation show distinct Doppler signatures -- blueshifts and redshifts coexist, or a redshift of the order of 10 \kms\ is followed by a blueshift of similar or higher magnitude. The synthetic images of \oxy\ and \siiv\ lines, which represent transition region radiation, also show the dots that are observed in \fe\ images, often expanded in size, or extended as a loop, and always with stronger Doppler velocities (up to 100 \kms) than that in \fe\ lines. Our observation and simulation results, together with the field geometry of dots in the simulation, suggest that most dots in emerging flux regions form in the lower solar atmosphere (at $\approx$1 Mm) by magnetic reconnection between emerging and pre-existing/emerged magnetic field. Some dots might be manifestations of magneto-acoustic shocks through the line formation region of \fe\ emission.

Keyword(s): EUI ; EUV ; active regions

The record appears in these collections:
Royal Observatory of Belgium > Solar Physics & Space Weather (SIDC)
Science Articles > Peer Reviewed Articles
Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence