000005697 001__ 5697
000005697 005__ 20220309115514.0
000005697 0247_ $$2DOI$$a10.5194/se-13-469-2022
000005697 037__ $$aSCART-2022-0045
000005697 100__ $$aCamelbeeck, Thierry
000005697 245__ $$aThe damaging character of shallow 20th century earthquakes in the Hainaut coal area (Belgium)
000005697 260__ $$c2022
000005697 520__ $$aThe present study analyses the impact and damage of shallow seismic activity that occurred from the end of the 19th century until the late 20th century in the coal area of the Hainaut province in Belgium. This seismicity is the second-largest source of seismic hazard in north-western Europe after the Lower Rhine Embayment. During this period, five earthquakes with moment magnitudes (Mw) around 4.0 locally caused moderate damage to buildings corresponding to maximum intensity VII on the European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98). Reviewing intensity data from the official macroseismic surveys held by the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), press reports and contemporary scientific studies resulted in a comprehensive macroseismic intensity dataset. Using this dataset, we created macroseismic maps for 28 earthquakes, established a new Hainaut intensity attenuation model and a relationship linking magnitude, epicentral intensity and focal depth. Using these relationships, we estimated the location and magnitude of pre-1985 earthquakes that occurred prior to deployment of the modern digital Belgian seismic network. This resulted in a new updated earthquake catalogue for the Hainaut area for the 1887–1985 period, including 124 events. A comparison with other areas worldwide where currently similar shallow earthquake activity occurs suggests that intensity attenuation is strong in Hainaut. This high attenuation and our analysis of the cumulative effect of the Hainaut seismicity indicate that current hazard maps overestimate ground motions in the Hainaut area. This reveals the need to use more appropriate ground motion models in hazard issues. Another strong implication for earthquake hazard comes from the reliability of the computed focal depths that helps clarifying the hypotheses about the origin of this seismicity. Some events were very shallow and occurred near the surface up to a depth not exceeding 1 km, suggesting a close link to mining activities. Many events, including the largest shallow events in the coal area before 1970, occurred at depths greater than 2 km, which would exclude a direct relationship with mining, but still might imply a triggering causality. A similar causality can also be questioned for other events that occurred just outside of the coal area since the end of the mining works.
000005697 594__ $$aNO
000005697 6531_ $$aintensity
000005697 6531_ $$amacroseismology
000005697 6531_ $$apress documents
000005697 6531_ $$acoal mining
000005697 6531_ $$aground motion attenuation
000005697 700__ $$aVan Noten, Koen
000005697 700__ $$aLecocq, Thomas
000005697 700__ $$aHendrickx, Marc
000005697 773__ $$c469-495$$n3$$pSolid Earth$$v13$$y2022
000005697 8560_ $$fkoen.vannoten@observatoire.be
000005697 85642 $$ahttps://se.copernicus.org/articles/13/469/2022/se-13-469-2022.html
000005697 8564_ $$s15326007$$uhttp://publi2-as.oma.be/record/5697/files/Camelbeecketal2022 Hainaut impact.pdf
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000005697 905__ $$apublished in
000005697 980__ $$aREFERD