000003741 001__ 3741
000003741 005__ 20190114171825.0
000003741 0247_ $$2DOI$$a10.1051/0004-6361/201832843
000003741 037__ $$aSCART-2019-0025
000003741 100__ $$aGaia Collaboration
000003741 245__ $$aGaia Data Release 2. Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
000003741 260__ $$c2018
000003741 520__ $$aContext. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. Aims: We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. Methods: We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. Results: The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Conclusions: Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies.
000003741 594__ $$aNO
000003741 6531_ $$aparallaxes
000003741 6531_ $$aHertzsprung-Russell and C-M diagrams
000003741 6531_ $$asolar neighborhood
000003741 6531_ $$astars: evolution
000003741 700__ $$aBabusiaux, C.
000003741 700__ $$avan Leeuwen, F.
000003741 700__ $$aBarstow, M. A.
000003741 700__ $$aJordi, C.
000003741 700__ $$aVallenari, A.
000003741 700__ $$aBossini, D.
000003741 700__ $$aBressan, A.
000003741 700__ $$aCantat-Gaudin, T.
000003741 700__ $$avan Leeuwen, M.
000003741 700__ $$aBrown, A. G. A.
000003741 700__ $$aPrusti, T.
000003741 700__ $$ade Bruijne, J. H. J.
000003741 700__ $$aBailer-Jones, C. A. L.
000003741 700__ $$aBiermann, M.
000003741 700__ $$aEvans, D. W.
000003741 700__ $$aEyer, L.
000003741 700__ $$aJansen, F.
000003741 700__ $$aKlioner, S. A.
000003741 700__ $$aLammers, U.
000003741 700__ $$aLindegren, L.
000003741 700__ $$aLuri, X.
000003741 700__ $$aMignard, F.
000003741 700__ $$aPanem, C.
000003741 700__ $$aPourbaix, D.
000003741 700__ $$aRandich, S.
000003741 700__ $$aSartoretti, P.
000003741 700__ $$aSiddiqui, H. I.
000003741 700__ $$aSoubiran, C.
000003741 700__ $$aWalton, N. A.
000003741 700__ $$aArenou, F.
000003741 700__ $$aBastian, U.
000003741 700__ $$aCropper, M.
000003741 700__ $$aDrimmel, R.
000003741 700__ $$aKatz, D.
000003741 700__ $$aLattanzi, M. G.
000003741 700__ $$aBakker, J.
000003741 700__ $$aCacciari, C.
000003741 700__ $$aCastañeda, J.
000003741 700__ $$aChaoul, L.
000003741 700__ $$aCheek, N.
000003741 700__ $$aDe Angeli, F.
000003741 700__ $$aFabricius, C.
000003741 700__ $$aGuerra, R.
000003741 700__ $$aHoll, B.
000003741 700__ $$aMasana, E.
000003741 700__ $$aMessineo, R.
000003741 700__ $$aMowlavi, N.
000003741 700__ $$aNienartowicz, K.
000003741 700__ $$aPanuzzo, P.
000003741 700__ $$aPortell, J.
000003741 700__ $$aRiello, M.
000003741 700__ $$aSeabroke, G. M.
000003741 700__ $$aTanga, P.
000003741 700__ $$aThévenin, F.
000003741 700__ $$aGracia-Abril, G.
000003741 700__ $$aComoretto, G.
000003741 700__ $$aGarcia-Reinaldos, M.
000003741 700__ $$aTeyssier, D.
000003741 700__ $$aAltmann, M.
000003741 700__ $$aAndrae, R.
000003741 700__ $$aAudard, M.
000003741 700__ $$aBellas-Velidis, I.
000003741 700__ $$aBenson, K.
000003741 700__ $$aBerthier, J.
000003741 700__ $$aBlomme, R.
000003741 700__ $$aBurgess, P.
000003741 700__ $$aBusso, G.
000003741 700__ $$aCarry, B.
000003741 700__ $$aCellino, A.
000003741 700__ $$aClementini, G.
000003741 700__ $$aClotet, M.
000003741 700__ $$aCreevey, O.
000003741 700__ $$aDavidson, M.
000003741 700__ $$aDe Ridder, J.
000003741 700__ $$aDelchambre, L.
000003741 700__ $$aDell'Oro, A.
000003741 700__ $$aDucourant, C.
000003741 700__ $$aFernández-Hernández, J.
000003741 700__ $$aFouesneau, M.
000003741 700__ $$aFrémat, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aGalluccio, L.
000003741 700__ $$aGarcía-Torres, M.
000003741 700__ $$aGonzález-Núñez, J.
000003741 700__ $$aGonzález-Vidal, J. J.
000003741 700__ $$aGosset, E.
000003741 700__ $$aGuy, L. P.
000003741 700__ $$aHalbwachs, J.-L.
000003741 700__ $$aHambly, N. C.
000003741 700__ $$aHarrison, D. L.
000003741 700__ $$aHernández, J.
000003741 700__ $$aHestroffer, D.
000003741 700__ $$aHodgkin, S. T.
000003741 700__ $$aHutton, A.
000003741 700__ $$aJasniewicz, G.
000003741 700__ $$aJean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
000003741 700__ $$aJordan, S.
000003741 700__ $$aKorn, A. J.
000003741 700__ $$aKrone-Martins, A.
000003741 700__ $$aLanzafame, A. C.
000003741 700__ $$aLebzelter, T.
000003741 700__ $$aLöffler, W.
000003741 700__ $$aManteiga, M.
000003741 700__ $$aMarrese, P. M.
000003741 700__ $$aMartín-Fleitas, J. M.
000003741 700__ $$aMoitinho, A.
000003741 700__ $$aMora, A.
000003741 700__ $$aMuinonen, K.
000003741 700__ $$aOsinde, J.
000003741 700__ $$aPancino, E.
000003741 700__ $$aPauwels, T.
000003741 700__ $$aPetit, J.-M.
000003741 700__ $$aRecio-Blanco, A.
000003741 700__ $$aRichards, P. J.
000003741 700__ $$aRimoldini, L.
000003741 700__ $$aRobin, A. C.
000003741 700__ $$aSarro, L. M.
000003741 700__ $$aSiopis, C.
000003741 700__ $$aSmith, M.
000003741 700__ $$aSozzetti, A.
000003741 700__ $$aSüveges, M.
000003741 700__ $$aTorra, J.
000003741 700__ $$avan Reeven, W.
000003741 700__ $$aAbbas, U.
000003741 700__ $$aAbreu Aramburu, A.
000003741 700__ $$aAccart, S.
000003741 700__ $$aAerts, C.
000003741 700__ $$aAltavilla, G.
000003741 700__ $$aÁlvarez, M. A.
000003741 700__ $$aAlvarez, R.
000003741 700__ $$aAlves, J.
000003741 700__ $$aAnderson, R. I.
000003741 700__ $$aAndrei, A. H.
000003741 700__ $$aAnglada Varela, E.
000003741 700__ $$aAntiche, E.
000003741 700__ $$aAntoja, T.
000003741 700__ $$aArcay, B.
000003741 700__ $$aAstraatmadja, T. L.
000003741 700__ $$aBach, N.
000003741 700__ $$aBaker, S. G.
000003741 700__ $$aBalaguer-Núñez, L.
000003741 700__ $$aBalm, P.
000003741 700__ $$aBarache, C.
000003741 700__ $$aBarata, C.
000003741 700__ $$aBarbato, D.
000003741 700__ $$aBarblan, F.
000003741 700__ $$aBarklem, P. S.
000003741 700__ $$aBarrado, D.
000003741 700__ $$aBarros, M.
000003741 700__ $$aBartholomé Muñoz, L.
000003741 700__ $$aBassilana, J.-L.
000003741 700__ $$aBecciani, U.
000003741 700__ $$aBellazzini, M.
000003741 700__ $$aBerihuete, A.
000003741 700__ $$aBertone, S.
000003741 700__ $$aBianchi, L.
000003741 700__ $$aBienaymé, O.
000003741 700__ $$aBlanco-Cuaresma, S.
000003741 700__ $$aBoch, T.
000003741 700__ $$aBoeche, C.
000003741 700__ $$aBombrun, A.
000003741 700__ $$aBorrachero, R.
000003741 700__ $$aBouquillon, S.
000003741 700__ $$aBourda, G.
000003741 700__ $$aBragaglia, A.
000003741 700__ $$aBramante, L.
000003741 700__ $$aBreddels, M. A.
000003741 700__ $$aBrouillet, N.
000003741 700__ $$aBrüsemeister, T.
000003741 700__ $$aBrugaletta, E.
000003741 700__ $$aBucciarelli, B.
000003741 700__ $$aBurlacu, A.
000003741 700__ $$aBusonero, D.
000003741 700__ $$aButkevich, A. G.
000003741 700__ $$aBuzzi, R.
000003741 700__ $$aCaffau, E.
000003741 700__ $$aCancelliere, R.
000003741 700__ $$aCannizzaro, G.
000003741 700__ $$aCarballo, R.
000003741 700__ $$aCarlucci, T.
000003741 700__ $$aCarrasco, J. M.
000003741 700__ $$aCasamiquela, L.
000003741 700__ $$aCastellani, M.
000003741 700__ $$aCastro-Ginard, A.
000003741 700__ $$aCharlot, P.
000003741 700__ $$aChemin, L.
000003741 700__ $$aChiavassa, A.
000003741 700__ $$aCocozza, G.
000003741 700__ $$aCostigan, G.
000003741 700__ $$aCowell, S.
000003741 700__ $$aCrifo, F.
000003741 700__ $$aCrosta, M.
000003741 700__ $$aCrowley, C.
000003741 700__ $$aCuypers, J.
000003741 700__ $$aDafonte, C.
000003741 700__ $$aDamerdji, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aDapergolas, A.
000003741 700__ $$aDavid, P.
000003741 700__ $$aDavid, M.
000003741 700__ $$ade Laverny, P.
000003741 700__ $$aDe Luise, F.
000003741 700__ $$aDe March, R.
000003741 700__ $$ade Martino, D.
000003741 700__ $$ade Souza, R.
000003741 700__ $$ade Torres, A.
000003741 700__ $$aDebosscher, J.
000003741 700__ $$adel Pozo, E.
000003741 700__ $$aDelbo, M.
000003741 700__ $$aDelgado, A.
000003741 700__ $$aDelgado, H. E.
000003741 700__ $$aDiakite, S.
000003741 700__ $$aDiener, C.
000003741 700__ $$aDistefano, E.
000003741 700__ $$aDolding, C.
000003741 700__ $$aDrazinos, P.
000003741 700__ $$aDurán, J.
000003741 700__ $$aEdvardsson, B.
000003741 700__ $$aEnke, H.
000003741 700__ $$aEriksson, K.
000003741 700__ $$aEsquej, P.
000003741 700__ $$aEynard Bontemps, G.
000003741 700__ $$aFabre, C.
000003741 700__ $$aFabrizio, M.
000003741 700__ $$aFaigler, S.
000003741 700__ $$aFalcão, A. J.
000003741 700__ $$aFarràs Casas, M.
000003741 700__ $$aFederici, L.
000003741 700__ $$aFedorets, G.
000003741 700__ $$aFernique, P.
000003741 700__ $$aFigueras, F.
000003741 700__ $$aFilippi, F.
000003741 700__ $$aFindeisen, K.
000003741 700__ $$aFonti, A.
000003741 700__ $$aFraile, E.
000003741 700__ $$aFraser, M.
000003741 700__ $$aFrézouls, B.
000003741 700__ $$aGai, M.
000003741 700__ $$aGalleti, S.
000003741 700__ $$aGarabato, D.
000003741 700__ $$aGarcía-Sedano, F.
000003741 700__ $$aGarofalo, A.
000003741 700__ $$aGarralda, N.
000003741 700__ $$aGavel, A.
000003741 700__ $$aGavras, P.
000003741 700__ $$aGerssen, J.
000003741 700__ $$aGeyer, R.
000003741 700__ $$aGiacobbe, P.
000003741 700__ $$aGilmore, G.
000003741 700__ $$aGirona, S.
000003741 700__ $$aGiuffrida, G.
000003741 700__ $$aGlass, F.
000003741 700__ $$aGomes, M.
000003741 700__ $$aGranvik, M.
000003741 700__ $$aGueguen, A.
000003741 700__ $$aGuerrier, A.
000003741 700__ $$aGuiraud, J.
000003741 700__ $$aGutié, R.
000003741 700__ $$aHaigron, R.
000003741 700__ $$aHatzidimitriou, D.
000003741 700__ $$aHauser, M.
000003741 700__ $$aHaywood, M.
000003741 700__ $$aHeiter, U.
000003741 700__ $$aHelmi, A.
000003741 700__ $$aHeu, J.
000003741 700__ $$aHilger, T.
000003741 700__ $$aHobbs, D.
000003741 700__ $$aHofmann, W.
000003741 700__ $$aHolland, G.
000003741 700__ $$aHuckle, H. E.
000003741 700__ $$aHypki, A.
000003741 700__ $$aIcardi, V.
000003741 700__ $$aJanßen, K.
000003741 700__ $$aJevardat de Fombelle, G.
000003741 700__ $$aJonker, P. G.
000003741 700__ $$aJuhász, Á. L.
000003741 700__ $$aJulbe, F.
000003741 700__ $$aKarampelas, A.
000003741 700__ $$aKewley, A.
000003741 700__ $$aKlar, J.
000003741 700__ $$aKochoska, A.
000003741 700__ $$aKohley, R.
000003741 700__ $$aKolenberg, K.
000003741 700__ $$aKontizas, M.
000003741 700__ $$aKontizas, E.
000003741 700__ $$aKoposov, S. E.
000003741 700__ $$aKordopatis, G.
000003741 700__ $$aKostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
000003741 700__ $$aKoubsky, P.
000003741 700__ $$aLambert, S.
000003741 700__ $$aLanza, A. F.
000003741 700__ $$aLasne, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aLavigne, J.-B.
000003741 700__ $$aLe Fustec, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aLe Poncin-Lafitte, C.
000003741 700__ $$aLebreton, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aLeccia, S.
000003741 700__ $$aLeclerc, N.
000003741 700__ $$aLecoeur-Taibi, I.
000003741 700__ $$aLenhardt, H.
000003741 700__ $$aLeroux, F.
000003741 700__ $$aLiao, S.
000003741 700__ $$aLicata, E.
000003741 700__ $$aLindstrøm, H. E. P.
000003741 700__ $$aLister, T. A.
000003741 700__ $$aLivanou, E.
000003741 700__ $$aLobel, A.
000003741 700__ $$aLópez, M.
000003741 700__ $$aManagau, S.
000003741 700__ $$aMann, R. G.
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000003741 700__ $$aMarschalkó, G.
000003741 700__ $$aMarshall, D. J.
000003741 700__ $$aMartino, M.
000003741 700__ $$aMarton, G.
000003741 700__ $$aMary, N.
000003741 700__ $$aMassari, D.
000003741 700__ $$aMatijevič, G.
000003741 700__ $$aMazeh, T.
000003741 700__ $$aMcMillan, P. J.
000003741 700__ $$aMessina, S.
000003741 700__ $$aMichalik, D.
000003741 700__ $$aMillar, N. R.
000003741 700__ $$aMolina, D.
000003741 700__ $$aMolinaro, R.
000003741 700__ $$aMolnár, L.
000003741 700__ $$aMontegriffo, P.
000003741 700__ $$aMor, R.
000003741 700__ $$aMorbidelli, R.
000003741 700__ $$aMorel, T.
000003741 700__ $$aMorris, D.
000003741 700__ $$aMulone, A. F.
000003741 700__ $$aMuraveva, T.
000003741 700__ $$aMusella, I.
000003741 700__ $$aNelemans, G.
000003741 700__ $$aNicastro, L.
000003741 700__ $$aNoval, L.
000003741 700__ $$aO'Mullane, W.
000003741 700__ $$aOrdénovic, C.
000003741 700__ $$aOrdóñez-Blanco, D.
000003741 700__ $$aOsborne, P.
000003741 700__ $$aPagani, C.
000003741 700__ $$aPagano, I.
000003741 700__ $$aPailler, F.
000003741 700__ $$aPalacin, H.
000003741 700__ $$aPalaversa, L.
000003741 700__ $$aPanahi, A.
000003741 700__ $$aPawlak, M.
000003741 700__ $$aPiersimoni, A. M.
000003741 700__ $$aPineau, F.-X.
000003741 700__ $$aPlachy, E.
000003741 700__ $$aPlum, G.
000003741 700__ $$aPoggio, E.
000003741 700__ $$aPoujoulet, E.
000003741 700__ $$aPrša, A.
000003741 700__ $$aPulone, L.
000003741 700__ $$aRacero, E.
000003741 700__ $$aRagaini, S.
000003741 700__ $$aRambaux, N.
000003741 700__ $$aRamos-Lerate, M.
000003741 700__ $$aRegibo, S.
000003741 700__ $$aReylé, C.
000003741 700__ $$aRiclet, F.
000003741 700__ $$aRipepi, V.
000003741 700__ $$aRiva, A.
000003741 700__ $$aRivard, A.
000003741 700__ $$aRixon, G.
000003741 700__ $$aRoegiers, T.
000003741 700__ $$aRoelens, M.
000003741 700__ $$aRomero-Gómez, M.
000003741 700__ $$aRowell, N.
000003741 700__ $$aRoyer, F.
000003741 700__ $$aRuiz-Dern, L.
000003741 700__ $$aSadowski, G.
000003741 700__ $$aSagristà Sellés, T.
000003741 700__ $$aSahlmann, J.
000003741 700__ $$aSalgado, J.
000003741 700__ $$aSalguero, E.
000003741 700__ $$aSanna, N.
000003741 700__ $$aSantana-Ros, T.
000003741 700__ $$aSarasso, M.
000003741 700__ $$aSavietto, H.
000003741 700__ $$aSchultheis, M.
000003741 700__ $$aSciacca, E.
000003741 700__ $$aSegol, M.
000003741 700__ $$aSegovia, J. C.
000003741 700__ $$aSégransan, D.
000003741 700__ $$aShih, I.-C.
000003741 700__ $$aSiltala, L.
000003741 700__ $$aSilva, A. F.
000003741 700__ $$aSmart, R. L.
000003741 700__ $$aSmith, K. W.
000003741 700__ $$aSolano, E.
000003741 700__ $$aSolitro, F.
000003741 700__ $$aSordo, R.
000003741 700__ $$aSoria Nieto, S.
000003741 700__ $$aSouchay, J.
000003741 700__ $$aSpagna, A.
000003741 700__ $$aSpoto, F.
000003741 700__ $$aStampa, U.
000003741 700__ $$aSteele, I. A.
000003741 700__ $$aSteidelmüller, H.
000003741 700__ $$aStephenson, C. A.
000003741 700__ $$aStoev, H.
000003741 700__ $$aSuess, F. F.
000003741 700__ $$aSurdej, J.
000003741 700__ $$aSzabados, L.
000003741 700__ $$aSzegedi-Elek, E.
000003741 700__ $$aTapiador, D.
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000003741 700__ $$aTauran, G.
000003741 700__ $$aTaylor, M. B.
000003741 700__ $$aTeixeira, R.
000003741 700__ $$aTerrett, D.
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000003741 700__ $$aTitarenko, A.
000003741 700__ $$aTorra Clotet, F.
000003741 700__ $$aTuron, C.
000003741 700__ $$aUlla, A.
000003741 700__ $$aUtrilla, E.
000003741 700__ $$aUzzi, S.
000003741 700__ $$aVaillant, M.
000003741 700__ $$aValentini, G.
000003741 700__ $$aValette, V.
000003741 700__ $$avan Elteren, A.
000003741 700__ $$aVan Hemelryck, E.
000003741 700__ $$aVaschetto, M.
000003741 700__ $$aVecchiato, A.
000003741 700__ $$aVeljanoski, J.
000003741 700__ $$aViala, Y.
000003741 700__ $$aVicente, D.
000003741 700__ $$aVogt, S.
000003741 700__ $$avon Essen, C.
000003741 700__ $$aVoss, H.
000003741 700__ $$aVotruba, V.
000003741 700__ $$aVoutsinas, S.
000003741 700__ $$aWalmsley, G.
000003741 700__ $$aWeiler, M.
000003741 700__ $$aWertz, O.
000003741 700__ $$aWevers, T.
000003741 700__ $$aWyrzykowski, Ł.
000003741 700__ $$aYoldas, A.
000003741 700__ $$aŽerjal, M.
000003741 700__ $$aZiaeepour, H.
000003741 700__ $$aZorec, J.
000003741 700__ $$aZschocke, S.
000003741 700__ $$aZucker, S.
000003741 700__ $$aZurbach, C.
000003741 700__ $$aZwitter, T.
000003741 773__ $$cA10, 29 pp$$pAstronomy & Astrophysics$$v616$$y2018
000003741 8560_ $$fronny.blomme@observatoire.be
000003741 85642 $$ahttp://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018A%26A...616A..10G
000003741 905__ $$apublished in
000003741 980__ $$aREFERD